Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. This is not a clear cut issue, but rather one of many different viewpoints. In Their Own Words. One issue which became apparent with this device in particular was the possibility for the lights which indicate the length and frequency of ventilation were prone to malfunctions.
When most people go to the store to purchase cosmetics and household cleaners they usually don't put too much thought into it. Most people do not realize that 14 million animals die and suffer each year for these products that are almost meaningless to humans.
Shah, abstract Cosmetic animal testing is a very big problem that gets greatly overlooked. It is a problem that has lasted for centuries. Using animals in research and to test the safety of products has been a topic of heated debate for decades. According to data collected by F. Barbara Orlans for her book, In the Name of Science: Issues in Responsible Animal Experimentation, sixty percent of all animals used in testing are used in biomedical research and product-safety testing People have different feelings for animals; many.
Every year, millions of animals undergo painful suffering or death as a result of scientific research into the effects of drugs, food additives, cosmetics and other chemical products.
While most people think animal testing is necessary, others are upset by what they see as needless suffering. This essay looks at some of the positive and negative aspects of animal testing.
Many medical research institutions make use of non-human animals as test subjects. Animals may be subject to experimentation or modified into conditions useful for gaining knowledge about human disease or for testing potential human treatments. Because animals as distant from humans as mice and rats share many physiological and genetic similarities with humans, animal experimentation can be tremen.
Animal testing has been around since at least BC and in the last years most medical breakthroughs regarding treatments and life-saving cures to ailments have resulted from research using animals, according to the California Biomedical Research Association. The World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki, states it's unethical to test on human volunteers unnecessarily before first.
Animal experimentation has been a commonly debated subject for many years, is it cruelty or science? This is because of harsh ways animals are treated like by their experimenters. If the experiment does not take place the experimenter will not do anything. This may cause harm to human beings because they won't benefit from a cure for their disease because the cure won't be developed. And so if we want to continue with the arithmetic that we started in the section above, we need to put an additional, and different, factor on each side of the equation to deal with the different moral values of acts and omissions.
One writer suggests that we can cut out a lot of philosophising about animal experiments by using this test:. Sadly, there are a number of examples where researchers have been prepared to experiment on human beings in ways that should not have been permitted on animals. And another philosopher suggests that it would anyway be more effective to research on normal human beings:. Whatever benefits animal experimentation is thought to hold in store for us, those very same benefits could be obtained through experimenting on humans instead of animals.
Indeed, given that problems exist because scientists must extrapolate from animal models to humans, one might think there are good scientific reasons for preferring human subjects.
The Use of Animals in Medical Research, If those human subjects were normal and able to give free and informed consent to the experiment then this might not be morally objectionable. In November the European Union put forward proposals to revise the directive for the protection of animals used in scientific experiments in line with the three R principle of replacing, reducing and refining the use of animals in experiments.
The proposals have three aims:. The proposed directive covers all live non-human vertebrate animals intended for experiments plus certain other species likely to experience pain, and also animals specifically bred so that their organs or tissue can be used in scientific procedures.
The proposal also introduces a ban on the use of great apes - chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans - in scientific procedures, other than in exceptional circumstances, but there is no proposal to phase out the use of other non-human primates in the immediate foreseeable future. This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets CSS enabled. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience.
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On this page Animal experimentation Drug safety Are animal experiments useful? Animal experimentation A difficult issue In Dr Jay Vacanti and his team grew an ear on the back of a mouse Animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products.
Two positions on animal experiments In favour of animal experiments: Experimenting on animals is acceptable if and only if: Experimenting on animals is always unacceptable because: The three Rs The three Rs are a set of principles that scientists are encouraged to follow in order to reduce the impact of research on animals. The three Rs are: Reducing the number of animals used in experiments by: Improving experimental techniques Improving techniques of data analysis Sharing information with other researchers Refinement: Refining the experiment or the way the animals are cared for so as to reduce their suffering by: Using less invasive techniques Better medical care Better living conditions Replacement: Replacing experiments on animals with alternative techniques such as: Experimenting on cell cultures instead of whole animals Using computer models Studying human volunteers Using epidemiological studies Top.
Drug safety Animal experiments and drug safety Scientists say that banning animal experiments would mean either an end to testing new drugs or using human beings for all safety tests Animal experiments are not used to show that drugs are safe and effective in human beings - they cannot do that.
Drugs that eventually make it to the marketplace can come from a variety of sources -- plants, animals, microbes, synthetic chemistry, biotechnology, and even modified molecules. Years of research and billions of dollars are invested by pharmaceutical companies as they seek out new, potential drugs for the market. All of this effort has resulted in the FDA's approval of 1, drugs for the marketplace since Munos The "recipes" that have…… [Read More].
Nuclear Weapons Testing in the United States. Comparing Two Articles Nuclear Weapons are not to be trifled with. These monsters can, in fact, annihilate the Earth in minutes.
Though many applaud the progress of technology in achieving such powerful weapons, most people lobby against nuclear weapon use, which can be detrimental on land, vegetation, animal life, sea life, water life, and, of course, humanity at large.
From previous examinations, it is necessary to note that nuclear weapons have harmed those that were nowhere near where they were detonated, thus proving the incredible extent of damage that they can provoke.
This paper will analyze two articles, both of which deal with this issue and will examine the purpose, content and goals of each author. First Article - Content In the first article, the author describes nuclear weapons testing in the United States. He states by stating the as the 's cane to an end, American…… [Read More]. Rise of the Planet of the Apes. Rise of the Planet of the Apes The interaction of human beings and the natural world has always been one of conflict because of the inhumane way that people can behave.
Animal have been used by human beings as pets, as entertainment, and in the course of scientific research. Fictional depictions of this interaction have reflected the nature of this relationship between man and animal. Some people value animal research as a means of curing human ailments and others decry it as animal cruelty.
This is not a clear cut issue, but rather one of many different viewpoints. This document will show various attitudes toward these interactions; the positive aspects of animal testing, the negative attitudes towards testing, and finally how both these attitudes are fitted into the context of the film Rise of the Planet of the Apes, a film which shows exactly how society feels about this complicated…… [Read More].
Conciliation for the Sake of. It is possible to find a middle ground in the issues of such animal rights groups as PETA, and list several points of agreement regarding what is ethically humane and for the animal's positive welfare.
That is, the two opposing sides should be able to agree to the following without abandoning their basic positions: This is…… [Read More]. At the electronics store, we were divided into various groups that were headed by different group leaders. Our salary was based on a basic pay as well as commission. This means that our earnings depended much on our push for more sales. The sales force of every individual was highly dependent on the amount of group cohesion and strategy which we put in place in attracting more clients to our stand as well as to our groups.
In regard to the sales and promotion functions, we were allowed to engage potential clients via email, phone calls and direct conversations. This means that we had to work together in ensuring that our sales and marketing…… [Read More]. Pronounced Differences Between the Habitats in Which.
A Broken Balance, studied. The author of the former, Jane Goodall, was located relatively close to the equator in the Tanzanian jungles of Africa. Whereas Goodal was fairly close to the equator, Peterson was much more close to the North Pole.
As a result, one of the immense points of variation in the habitats in which these researchers studied was in the climate. Peterson experienced immense temperature extremes in his work, whereas for the most part, the temperature remained fairly consistent where Goodall was -- meaning it was regularly hot. This difference in climate, as well as the degree in which human intervention was found in both of these…… [Read More].
Entrepreneurial Leadership the Two Entrepreneurial. Lastly, I would just like to know what approaches are out there.
Everybody has his or her own idea, but I want to know what works for other people. Some will argue against any serious ethical principles at all, some will make ethics a central part of their company.
For me, I know that I have to choose a market-based approach, so I am definitely curious to learn about the different theories and models that can help me not only know more, but contextualize that knowledge better. Google Street View controversy takes a bizarre twist. Retrieved April 16, from http: China, Apple, Facebook threaten 'open web'. Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Retrieved April…… [Read More]. The animals are another direct stakeholder, and they have little voice here.
PETA's stakes are unclear. They position themselves as speaking for and defending the animals, but they might well have other motives. We know that PETA thrives on publicity, and seeks it out for a number of reasons. Consumers are a further stakeholder, as pet lovers are unlikely to be attracted to a pet food company known for cruelty to cats and dogs.
Supply chain partners are stakeholders, and their interest falls somewhere in between the interests of the company and the interests of the consumers. Regulators are a stakeholder because there are laws governing the…… [Read More]. International Marketing We Are a. The Germans have a long history in the business, with "eau de Cologne" being invented in Koln years ago IK, The German market is continuing to grow slowly, despite economic challenges, recording There are approximately firms in the industry in Germany, ranging from large international enterprises to small boutique cosmetic and fragrance houses.
The industry is centered in Frankfurt. These companies are among the world's leading exporters of cosmetics. The industry association coordinates efforts with respect to both marketing and research and development functions at German firms. The German cosmetics market is relatively saturated with competitors.
Most major international brands have a presence in the market, as do scores of boutique brands. A multitude of channels are used, with indications being that mainstream mass retailers are the preferred channel for Germans in general.
Resqpod in Cardiac Arrest Resqpod. One issue which became apparent with this device in particular was the possibility for the lights which indicate the length and frequency of ventilation were prone to malfunctions. This issue has been addressed by the manufacturer and has been reasonably rectified to a standard of being able to be used confidently in emergency situations Thayne et al.
The potential danger of such a malfunction is apparent in a high risk situation. Though emergency personnel are trained in the correct technique of CP method, in such high stress situations it is not uncommon for the adrenaline of the situation to result in over ventilation leading to a significant decrease not only in blood pressure but also in the efficacy of CP itself. The device since the manufacturing adjustment has been implemented in a number of real world emergency services.
It has functioned since…… [Read More]. Ethics in Nanomedicine the Term. All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine.
Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i. Sanctity of Life Argument Against Euthanasia Some of the most difficult ethical questions of our age concern the definition of life -- when it begins, what it means, when and how it should end. Many of the arguments surrounding these questions concern the right of others to end someone's life.
This problem lies at the heart of debates about abortion, capital punishment, and even animal testing. It is particularly relevant to the controversy surrounding euthanasia. Does anyone have the right to end another's life, even to relieve suffering or as a result of the express wish of the sufferer?
Central to the argument against euthanasia is the concept of the "sanctity of innocent human life. He points out that, while some Eastern philosophies espouse the sanctity of all biological life, more mainstream Western…… [Read More]. FDA Drug Approval Process In order for a pharmaceutical company to obtain FDA approval for a new drug, a long sequence of detailed testing and clinical trials must be administered.
Furthermore, of every compounds that go through pre-clinical testing, only five advance to the human testing phase, and only one of these compounds will actually be approved. There are six key phases of testing that potential drugs go through on the path to FDA approval. The first phase of the drug approval process is pre-clinical testing.
This consists of laboratory and…… [Read More]. Marketing Communication Programme for the New Product. Marketing Communication Programme for the New Product "The Body Shop" offers a wide range of naturally inspired cosmetics and toiletry products. The brand, originally created in the United Kingdom, distributes its products and expresses its values through a large multi-channel network of exclusive retail shops 1, company owned and 1, franchisees in more than 60 countries, as well as through home and online sales.
The purpose of this report is developing an international marketing plan for a new product; a special shampoo which mitigates the hair loss problem of people, particularly for men, to be added to the range for international market in Asia for the Body Shop.
An international marketing plan including an analysis of marketing potential and target segment of the new product, a marketing communication programme for the new product is indicated in this report.
The orks Cited five sources in MLA format. Food, Diet and Cancer Diet is fuel for our body. On the same account a balanced nutritious intake is what a human body needs more than anything. Hence food is one of the most cardinal factors that determine the quality of our healthy as well as the longevity of our lives. Knowing which food to eat in what quantity and how food helps us in building our defence mechanisms is essential.
This argumentative essay based on thorough analysis as well as extensive research revolves around and proves the following thesis statement: There is a correlation between diet and cancer Correlation between milk as well as other dairy products and Cancer There are several forms of cancer killing thousands of people worldwide. One of the most common types of cancer is breast cancer affecting women under the age of 50…… [Read More]. L'Oreal's Strategic Direction Amidst the global economic downturn, France's cosmetics giant L'Oreal corporation outperformed projections in the first ten months of Innovation has kept L'Oreal's market position in front of its competitors, and the company has upheld its promise to stakeholders and its 64, employees alike to continue as the world leader in cosmetic products.
Our mission is to help men and women around the world realise that aspiration, and express their individual personalities to the full. This is what gives meaning and value to…… [Read More]. Domestic and International Terrorists This. While both domestic and international terrorism pose a threat to America the threat of domestic groups is more serious.
The individuals in the domestic groups already live here and are able to mingle, plot, plan and carry out acts of violence with very little scrutiny until the act occurs. International groups must deal with visa issues, customs and other things that make it more difficult to get into and attack the U. There will never be a complete eradication of terrorism either on the domestic or the international level. Each of them will live on and the nation is going to have to learn to live with the fact that they exist.
Law enforcement and government will work together to minimize the threat of terrorist groups in America but they will never completely rid the nation of the threat because of the rights the U.
Food and Drug Law in. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the Act grandfathered in, as it were. Dunn The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" one in need of prior approval to market , as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling.
Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before To make matters worse, between and , the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…… [Read More].
Interest Groups Describe the different types of interest groups single issue groups and public interest groups and the goals that each type pursues. Single-issue interest groups are exactly that: Although the single interest might overlap with broader issues or related interests, the main goal of a single-interest group is to promote legislation related to the target area. For example, the National ifle Association NA can be considered a single-interest group. Its concerns range within the rubric of gun rights, but the NA lobbying effort remains solely concerned with Second Amendment issues.
PETA is concerned primarily about the humane treatment of animals and advocates policies that prohibit animal testing and slaughterhouses, for…… [Read More]. Body Shop the Business Model. Their pricing is relatively high due to high product differentiation. Started in the late s to appeal to a market that has been increasingly enamored with natural ingredients and products, this market has only grown whilst trends for holistic and organic items have, if not stayed constant, certainly increased.
In this way, the Body Shop not only managed to carve a niche for itself when inclination for natural products was just beginning but it has gained a reputation and foothold in this field, that a rare few have been able to beat. The Body Shop is a mature market and a long-established company having a niche in the field.
It has high entry barriers making for tough competition and little opportunity for new entrants. Their key strength is, therefore, their name, experience, and image. They also…… [Read More]. In the past, randomized controlled trials gave most of the information about the safety and efficacy of these products and treatments. Randomized clinical trials were considered the foundation of evidence-based medicine but reliably only when conducted according to principles and standards.
These principles and standards comprise good clinical research or GCP. The guidelines were created to help national regulatory authorities, sponsors, investigators and ethics committees to implement GCP for overall clinical research.
GCP incorporates accepted and established ethical and scientific quality standards complied with for the design, conduct,…… [Read More]. Charities have been found lacking a clear SI policy even though the public clearly says it favors the charities that invest ethically. Ethical Investment and Charities Ethics and business are now so closely connected that you cannot discuss the latter without referring to the former. This is because most people today believe that ethics should be a part of every business policy and the public has become more conscious of the ethical responsibilities of business houses.
This awareness has come from the realization that while all businesses may improve the economic condition of the country and accelerate economic activity, they do not necessarily benefit the society and many are unaware of their responsibility towards the community.
For example, tobacco companies are probably one of the most important economic sources of income for the country. Tobacco sells well and the income…… [Read More]. The Body Shop International, Plc.
A Situation Analysis of Corporate esponsibility Early to the contemporary trend of corporate responsibility in business management practices, Anita oddick's innovative UK-based corporation responded to a niche in the hair and skin beauty product market when no one else had even conceived of combining activism with ecological product development and social cause networks.
Body Shop Humor in the. The advertising campaign does not differ from that in other countries, since it is integrated in the company's global marketing strategy. The company did not manage to distinguish its competitive advantage.
The Body Shop is not sufficiently differentiated from other cosmetics producers that also address the South Korean market. It is also recommended that the company analyzes consumers' needs that have not yet been addressed by their competitors. Such situations present opportunities that can be exploited by the company in order to gain more customers. In addition to this, the website should…… [Read More].
Animal Testing View Full Essay. Law and Animal Experimentation: Hastings Center Report Saraf, ShyamK, and Vinay Kumaraswamy. Issues with Animal Experimentations'. Indian Journal of Orthopaedics Retrieved April 21, , from http: Test People, Not Animals. New Scientist, , Science and Engineering Ethics, 12 1 , Ferdowsian, Hope R, and Nancy Beck. Retrieved from the Internet at: References Anonymous - Animal Testing Rowan - Article Title: The Hastings Center Report.
Use of Animals in Medical Research. The ethics of animal research. Talking Point on the use of animals in scientific research. Science and Society, 8 6 , -- Marc Bekoff and Carron a. Where do you draw the line? Ethics, animals and science. Ruiz-Meana, Marisol, et al. Animal Testing is Bad Science: Viewed 11 Jan The animal rights debate. Pros and cons of transgenic mouse mutagenesis test systems.
Animal Testing Essay Topics
Jul 25, · Testing new industrial chemicals is essential for public health and the environment. But animal testing is costly, and too many chemicals are left untested. A new AI tool may solve the problem. The use of animals for research and testing has been part of science since its inception. The lives of research animals of all kinds were often short and painful. In contrast, animal rights activists contend that the lives of animals should be protected as if they were human. Animal Testing Essay Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research, and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.